A corneal ulcer, or ulcerative keratitis, is an inflammatory condition of the cornea involving loss of its outer layer. It is very common in dogs and is sometimes seen in cats. In veterinary medicine, the term corneal ulcer is a generic name for any condition involving the loss of the outer layer of the cornea, and as such is used to describe conditions with both inflammatory and traumatic causes.
Corneal ulcers are one of the most common eye diseases in dogs. They are caused by trauma, detergent burns, and infections. Other eye conditions can cause corneal ulcers, such as entropion, distichiae, corneal dystrophy, and keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eye). There have been at least two cases where corneal ulceration was caused by canine herpesvirus.
Superficial ulcers involve a loss of part of the epithelium. Deep ulcers extend into or through the stroma and can result in severe scarring and corneal perforation. … Read the rest
Corneal endothelial dystrophy is an age-related change that affects the inner layer of the corneal, the endothelium. Leakage of fluid into the cornea causes edema, causing a bluish appearance. This will eventually involve the whole cornea. Bullous keratopathy (blisters in the cornea) may also form, leading to nonhealing and recurrent corneal ulceration. Hyperosmotic agents are sometimes used topically for treatment, but success with these medications is inconsistent and can cause irritation. Bad cases may require a corneal transplant or thermokeratoplasty, which is a grid of superficial burns to the cornea that causes anterior stromal fibers to contract and prevent fluid uptake by the stroma. The most commonly affected breeds are the Boston Terrier, Chihuahua, and Dachshund. The age of onset in the Boston is five to nine years and eight to thirteen years in the Chihuahua and Dachshund. The disease is similar to Fuchs’ dystrophy in humans.
Corneal dystrophy in … Read the rest
A distichia is an eyelash that arises from an abnormal spot on the eyelid of a dog. Distichiae usually exit from the duct of the meibomian gland at the eyelid margin. They are usually multiple and sometimes more than one arises from a duct. They can affect either the upper or lower eyelid and are usually bilateral. The lower eyelids of dogs usually have no eyelashes. Distichiae usually cause no symptoms because the lashes are soft, but they can irritate the eye and cause tearing, squinting, inflammation, and corneal ulcers and scarring. Treatment options include manual removal, electrolysis, electrocautery, cryotherapy, and surgery.
Commonly Affected Breeds
In veterinary medicine, some canine breeds are affected by distichiasis more frequently than others: Cocker Spaniel, Dachshund (especially the miniature longhaired Dachshund), Bulldog, Pekingese, Yorkshire Terrier, Flat-Coated Retriever, Shetland Sheepdog, Poodle, Elo (dog).
Distichia can cause redness of the eye, increased eye … Read the rest